Home Assistant in May tried to “end of life” running it on a generic Linux platform, prefering their OS (the name has changes a few time in the past few months so I am not sure what they call it any more, HASS Home Assistant Operating System, something). After they relized how popular that method was, they stepped back and released it as supervised-installer. This is what I want running on an Rpi4 until July when I redid it using a straight Rpi4 HA install. Using Debian instead of HASS has its quirks but let me has a little more contro but became buggy over time as HA moved away from that install method. You are adding another layer by virtualizing the platform as well. I am not sure if you installed the full superior set up or only Home Assistant Core. There are too many variables that can be interfering or not playing nice with each other. What I would not suggest doing is running Home Assistant on Docker for Mac. I used to use that for work and man did it have bugs and that was without privileged mode you would need to run it in to access the bluetooth adapter. I would suggest using a prebuilt VM which is built on Home Assistant’s Operating system to remove at least one variable.
setcap command is for those who are running HA core directly on the operating system. As the docker containers will have their own version of python, changing the permission on the host python will not make any difference. You can try to enter the containers via Ubuntu or a HA terminal plugin but, at least on my instance
setcap isn’t even an available command.