Bluetooth XDO BT802 BT-802 and ZEXMTE Tutorial Home Assistant 2022.8.7

NB: Updated March 2024.

I recently purchased the XDO BT802 from Amazon. It’s on the list of “Known Working Adapters” on the Bluetooth Integration Page. I had some trouble getting this working on my Raspberry Pi 4 running Raspbian 11 / Bullseye with Home Assistant Core, so while I’m not an expert at either Linux or Bluetooth I thought I’d post how I got this working.

Short answer: you need to download the driver, which is two Linux commands which I provide below. For other similar adapters I some hints on how to find appropriate drivers.

Posts below suggest the ZEXMTE Long Range Bluetooth Adapter has the same chipset, and the process below works for it as well.

You may also find my Xiaomi Mijia LYWSD03MMC Tutorial useful.

NB: if you want an easier option (though downloading two files is pretty easy) the Sena UD100-G03 is recommended by Home Assistant and I found it was picked up immediately by the Raspberry Pi with no issues at all. However, the ZEXMTE with the Realtek Bluetooth 5.1 chipset seems to pick up signals more easily than the older Sena adapter with Bluetooth 4. The Sena reports higher signal strengths, but my more distant sensors say “Unknown”. With the ZeXMTE / Realtek the reported signal strengths are lower, but all of my sensors report it more reliably.

Core Problem

The key problem is that Linux requires a “firmware” / aka Driver to get a piece of hardware working. The firmware for this device is not installed in Raspbian by default, so getting it installed is the key. The error message I was getting in the home assistant user interface was

Failed to start Bluetooth: adapter ‘hci0’ not found

The XSO BT802 appears to have a Realtek RTL8761BU chipset. To download the firmware / driver for this chipset ssh into your Raspberry Pi and run the following commands.

cd /lib/firmware/rtl_bt
sudo wget
sudo wget

If you have a different model of Realtek chipset you may find it here or here. If they don’t have the “.bin” extension when you download them you’ll have to reload it.

Disable Bluetooth
It’s simple to disable the built in Bluetooth adapter by editing the config file. This doesn’t disable USB bluetooth adapters, as @targettadams pointed out to me.

New distros: sudo nano /boot/firmware/config.txt' Older distros sudo nano /boot/config.txt`

Add the lines below. The [pi4] section is power saving by turning off LEDs, you can add it, or not. Of course, if you want the Pi4 WiFi to work, don’t disable it.


# Disable the PWR LED
# Disable the Activity LED
# Disable ethernet port LEDs
# Turn off mainboard LEDs

If this doesn’t work for, you can try the Appendix “Disabling Bluetooth - Alternate Option”

Finding Chipset / Firmware Required

If you’re not sure which driver you need run the command below and look for messages that contain something like the “not found” message below. This should tell you the chipset model and the file you need to find.

dmesg|egrep -i "blu|hci|bt"

[ 1280.353319] bluetooth hci0: Direct firmware load for rtl_bt/rtl8761bu_fw.bin failed with error -2
[ 1280.353343] Bluetooth: hci0: RTL: firmware file rtl_bt/rtl8761bu_fw.bin not found

Once you’ve copied the correct driver onto your Pi reboot the pi with the "sudo reboot" command. Run the “dmesg” command from above to verify the firmware has been found and installed.

Install Packages
Installing these OS packages seemed to help reduce error messages in the HA logs.

sudo apt-get install libcap2 libpcap0.8-dev tcpdump
sudo apt-get install bluez*

USB Extension Cable
I don’t know if this helps at all, but I have put the USB adapter on a 2m extension cable, with the antenna up as high as I could easily get it. I read that some drives in the Pi can cause Bluetooth interference, and it’s also good to keep the adapter away from WiFi antennas. I’ll have a play with this and update at some point.

List USB Connected Devices
This command lists devices plugged into the Pi USB ports. This doesn’t mean the device is working or has a driver / firmware, just that it’s attached and the Pi can see it.

Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub
Bus 001 Device 003: ID 0bda:a725 Realtek Semiconductor Corp. Bluetooth 5.1 Radio
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 2109:3431 VIA Labs, Inc. Hub
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub

List Bluetooth Devices / Interfaces
This command lists the Bluetooth devices plugged into to the Pi.

hciconfig -a

When I run that command I get the following - with some information redacted / removed for brevity. Given I know my external bluetooth device has a Realtek chipset I can tell that hci0 is the device I need to tell Home Assistant to use. Once you’ve done the step to disable the built in bluetooth above it will look different.

hci1:   Type: Primary  Bus: UART
        BD Address: E4:5F:...  ACL MTU: 1021:8  SCO MTU: 64:1
        UP RUNNING
        Name: '...'
        Service Classes: Rendering, Capturing, Audio
        Manufacturer: Cypress Semiconductor (305)

hci0:   Type: Primary  Bus: USB
        BD Address: 00:E0:...  ACL MTU: 1021:6  SCO MTU: 255:12
        UP RUNNING
        Name: '... #1'
        Manufacturer: Realtek Semiconductor Corporation (93)

List Bluetooth IDs
This seems to list the bluetooth adapter IDs.

hcitool dev
        hci1    E4:5F:01:xx:xx:xx
        hci0    00:E0:42::xx:xx:xx

I don’t really have any idea what this is, but if your output looks much different from mine maybe look into it.

 0 bluetooth hci0   unblocked unblocked
 1 bluetooth hci1   unblocked unblocked

Scan for Bluetooth Devices
This scans for bluetooth devices near you. Before I did this I plugged in a bluetooth receiver, enabled Bluetooth on my Android phone, and hit “add new device” to wake it up. The output is the IDs of the Bluetooth devices near you.

hcitool scan

If your built in bluetooth is enabled the range will be poor and likely nothing or only the closest bluetooth devices will be picked up.

Bluetooth Ping
Once you have device Bluetooth IDs you can ping the devices.

sudo l2ping -c 1 88:54:xx:xx:xx:xx
Ping: 88:54:xx:xx:xx:xx from E4:5F:xx:xx:xx:xx (data size 44) ...
44 bytes from 88:54:xx:xx:xx:xx id 0 time 7.31ms
1 sent, 1 received, 0% loss

You can also choose which Bluetooth device to ping from with the -i switch. I can ping my Android phone from either bluetooth adapter - see the third post in this thread.

l2ping -c 1 -i hci1 88:54:xx:xx:xx:xx
l2ping -c 1 -i hci0 88:54:xx:xx:xx:xx

Rename Bluetooth Broadcast ID

sudo hciconfig hci0 name ‘NewNameHere’

Python 3.10 Upgrade Error
If you get an error that looks anything like this

[custom_components.ble_monitor] HCIdump thread: Something wrong - interface hci0 not ready, and will be skipped for current scan period.
[custom_components.ble_monitor] HCIdump thread: Trying to power cycle Bluetooth adapter hci0 00:E0:42:8B:77:03, will try to use it next scan period

Try this - tweak it for your setup

sudo setcap 'cap_net_raw,cap_net_admin+eip' /usr/local/bin/python3.10
sudo systemctl restart home-assistant@homeassistant

This answer is documented in the BLE Monitor FAQ, and was originally found in this github question. Both have more detail and options.

Incidentally, to upgrade Python to 3.10 (and probably higher in future) there’s a good tutorial here.

Appendix - Disabling Bluetooth - Alternate Option
Try the method up the top of the doc first, as of 2024 it seems to work and is very easy.

As of HA 2022.09 you also seem to see your bluetooth adapters in the HA dashboard. You will need to go in and disable it in there. It was autodetected for me, then I disabled it.


That might be enough, but you may want to disable the built-in Bluetooth for some reason. If you’re happy using the HA method skip to the next step, otherwise you can try this. This information was picked up from here with tips from a few other places.

Note: I’m not a Linux expert, I know enough to find things with Google and usually get things working. If any expert wants to correct any of this please comment below, I’d be happy for the advice.

First we add a new target which runs after ‘’.

nano /etc/systemd/system/

Add this to the file

Description=Custom Target - starts last

Then run this to make it executable

chmod 755 /etc/systemd/system/

Create the systemd service that calls the script to stop bluetooth on startup

sudo nano /etc/systemd/system/bluetooth-disable.service

Put this into the file

Description=Disable R.Pi4 built in bluetooth on startup



Now create the script that disables bluetooth. Run this to get a list of your bluetooth adapters

hciconfig -a

Look at the output. In this case I want to disable hci1 which is on the UART bus, rather than hci0 on the USB bus. This seems to swap around, each of my Pi4’s seem to be different.

hci1:   Type: Primary  Bus: UART
        UP RUNNING
        RX bytes:1616 acl:0 sco:0 events:93 errors:0
        TX bytes:2916 acl:0 sco:0 commands:73 errors:0
        Link policy: RSWITCH SNIFF
        Name: 'XXX'
        Class: 0x2c0000
        Service Classes: Rendering, Capturing, Audio
        Device Class: Miscellaneous,
        HCI Version: 5.0 (0x9)  Revision: 0x156
        LMP Version: 5.0 (0x9)  Subversion: 0x6119
        Manufacturer: Cypress Semiconductor (305)

hci0:   Type: Primary  Bus: USB
        RX bytes:9516 acl:0 sco:0 events:385 errors:0
        TX bytes:32162 acl:0 sco:0 commands:264 errors:0
        Link policy: RSWITCH HOLD SNIFF PARK
        Link mode: SLAVE ACCEPT
        Name: 'USB'
        Class: 0x2c0000
        Service Classes: Rendering, Capturing, Audio
        Device Class: Miscellaneous,
        HCI Version: 5.1 (0xa)  Revision: 0x9a9
        LMP Version: 5.1 (0xa)  Subversion: 0x8a6b
        Manufacturer: Realtek Semiconductor Corporation (93)

sudo nano /opt/bluetooth/

Put this into the file - change the hci based on what you found above. I found that if I didn’t include the sleep command it didn’t work. I don’t know why, I figure some other system service or startup item is starting bluetooth and we have to wait until it’s fully started before we turn it off. That’s a guess though, if anyone has any suggestions please reply below.

sleep 10
echo "Disabling hci1 built-in bluetooth adapter"
/usr/bin/hciconfig hci1 down &

Make both of the scripts executable (I think this is necessary)

chmod a+x /opt/bluetooth/
chmod a+x /etc/systemd/system/bluetooth-disable.service

Run the script, then check that the built in bluetooth has been disabled

hciconfig -a

It should look something like this

hci0:   Type: Primary  Bus: USB

hci1:   Type: Primary  Bus: UART
        BD Address: AA:BB:CC:DD:EE:FF  ACL MTU: 1021:8  SCO MTU: 64:1
        RX bytes:4447 acl:0 sco:0 events:431 errors:0

Finally run this command to run this script every time the server starts

sudo systemctl enable bluetooth-disable.service

Next reboot and check built in bluetooth is down with the hciconfig -a command. If it’s not, and you work out why, please comment below with the solution.


Thanks for posting this. I got this same device (because it is on the list of known working adapters) and I’m having the same issue. I’m on debian but the error is the same and nothing seems to work. I think I already tried your suggestions but I’ll give it another go later. If nothing less, there is some comfort knowing I’m not the only one with this issue.

Thanks @TXSpazz - there’s the old saying that misery loves company! I also hear that you can make BLE to WiFi relays with ESP32, but assembly is required… I might look into that instead if I can’t get this working. I can see in some Amazon reviews that people have gotten it working in Linux and on R.Pi, though I seem to have the rtl8761bu rather than rtl8761b they mention.

Interestingly, I can ping my phone using both the Bluetooth built into my R.Pi4 and also using the USB adapter - the “-i” switch to l2ping lets you choose which to use. However, while this works, I’m getting messages in my Home Assistant log.

l2ping -c 1 -i hci1 88:54:1F:4D:XX:XX
Ping: 88:54:1F:4D:XX:XX from E4:5F:01:7E:XX:XX (data size 44) ...
44 bytes from 88:54:1F:4D:XX:XX id 0 time 43.69ms
1 sent, 1 received, 0% loss

l2ping -c 1 -i hci0 88:54:1F:4D:XX:XX
Ping: 88:54:1F:4D:XX:XX from 00:E0:42:8B:XX:XX (data size 44) ...
44 bytes from 88:54:1F:4D:XX:XX id 0 time 7.49ms
1 sent, 1 received, 0% loss


88:54:1F:4D:XX:XX = Android Phone
E4:5F:01:7E:XX:XX = Raspberry Pi Bluetooth  (hci1)
00:E0:42:8B:XX:XX = USB Bluetooth BT-802 (hci0)

Here’s what’s in my HA log - I haven’t had a chance to look into this yet.

2022-09-01 20:52:31.283 ERROR (SyncWorker_2) [scapy.runtime] Cannot set filter: libpcap is not available. Cannot compile
 filter !
2022-09-01 20:52:31.587 ERROR (SyncWorker_2) [homeassistant.components.dhcp] Cannot watch for dhcp packets without a fun
ctional packet filter: libpcap is not available. Cannot compile filter !
2022-09-01 21:20:20.009 ERROR (MainThread) [homeassistant.components.bluetooth] Error stopping scanner: [org.freedesktop
.systemd1.ShuttingDown] Refusing activation, D-Bus is shutting down.

I’m also seeing email notifications with this

Error stopping scanner: [org.freedesktop.DBus.Error.NoReply] Message recipient disconnected from message bus without replying

OK, so when I try this…

I get “no such file or directory”. I know very little about linux, so I’m lost at that point.

Off the top of my head, try creating the directory like this, then using the sudo wget commands

mkdir -p /lib/firmware/rtl_bt

Might be a difference between Linux distributions or versions. @TXSpazz you should also look around for Debian specific instructions, I found this driver set for example.

I think it’s working… can someone else please test this ideally with a Raspberry Pi?

Thanks for the links to the drivers :heart:
Saved a lot of searching to find right drivers for the ZEXMTE adapter I picked up from Amazon

Installed the 8761b drivers on debian (intel nuc), and all works.

(I had to create the rtl_bt directory)

1 Like

Good to know thanks Pembo. I’ve added that adapter in the subject / post text so others can find this reasonable easily as well :slight_smile:

im still unable to get my Zexmte bluetooth adapter working im running a supervised docker installation ths is what i get when i run hciconfig -a

@Jailbreaker58 I don’t know much about using hardware from docker. I suggest you look at the section above “Finding Chipset / Firmware Required” to see if there are any error messages or useful info in that log. Like I said at the top of this tutorial, I’m not an expert, I just managed to muddle my way through and work it out.

I’ve just updated the tutorial because it wasn’t running the “disable bluetooth” script on startup. I’ve used a new method, which is detailed in the first post.

I am in the process of purchasing a long range bluetooth adapter to replace my NUC integrated one. Was about to buy the ZEXMTE mentionned when I reached your post, make me wonder if it the best choice now…

I understand the command your running but since I’m on Hass OS, I guess those commands needs to be run on the host level which we don’t have SSH access to. Am I right ?

I suspect you’re correct. Some of the other long range cards are the same chipset so be a bit careful what you buy.

This one works well with good range once you get it going.

1 Like

I’ve just received the ZEXMTE BT-505 I ordered today, which is to replace the built in Bluetooth on my Intel Nuc in order to get some additional range.

I’m also running HA OS, and was pleasantly surprised to find it was completely plug and play! I plugged it into one of the spare USB 2.0 ports on my NUC and rebooted. When HA loaded it showed a new device as being discovered, which was the ZEXMTE adapter on hci0. I configured it and HA added it successfully. I then deleted my 7 previous BLE devices and then disabled the built in BT from the integrations page.

After another reboot, all 7 BT devices were discovered by the new ZEXMTE and added to HA successfully. I can now communicate with them in every room of the house, so the aerial definitely helps the range.


Hi, Thank you so much for your post,

From the below am i correct in thinking my Bluetooth device is not be detected at all?
It is in a VM and also im not sure of the make or model of the Bluetooth device and highly doubtfull it is on the approved list for HA

➜  ~ dmesg|egrep -i "blu|hci|bt"
[    0.297119] Bluetooth: Core ver 2.22
[    0.297287] NET: Registered PF_BLUETOOTH protocol family
[    0.297800] Bluetooth: HCI device and connection manager initialized
[    0.298280] Bluetooth: HCI socket layer initialized
[    0.298755] Bluetooth: L2CAP socket layer initialized
[    0.299270] Bluetooth: SCO socket layer initialized
[    0.503541] ahci 0000:00:1f.2: version 3.0
[    0.504671] ahci 0000:00:1f.2: AHCI 0001.0000 32 slots 6 ports 1.5 Gbps 0x3f                                                                                                                                                              impl SATA mode
[    0.505489] ahci 0000:00:1f.2: flags: 64bit ncq only
[    0.506893] scsi host0: ahci
[    0.507385] scsi host1: ahci
[    0.507819] scsi host2: ahci
[    0.508346] scsi host3: ahci
[    0.508832] scsi host4: ahci
[    0.509358] scsi host5: ahci
[    0.523117] ehci_hcd: USB 2.0 'Enhanced' Host Controller (EHCI) Driver
[    0.523727] ehci-pci: EHCI PCI platform driver
[    0.524148] ohci_hcd: USB 1.1 'Open' Host Controller (OHCI) Driver
[    0.524746] ohci-pci: OHCI PCI platform driver
[    0.525167] uhci_hcd: USB Universal Host Controller Interface driver
[    0.526484] xhci_hcd 0000:02:00.0: xHCI Host Controller
[    0.527096] xhci_hcd 0000:02:00.0: new USB bus registered, assigned bus numbe                                                                                                                                                             r 1
[    0.528869] xhci_hcd 0000:02:00.0: hcc params 0x00087001 hci version 0x100 qu                                                                                                                                                             irks 0x0000000000000010
[    0.530461] xhci_hcd 0000:02:00.0: xHCI Host Controller
[    0.531070] xhci_hcd 0000:02:00.0: new USB bus registered, assigned bus numbe                                                                                                                                                             r 2
[    0.531776] xhci_hcd 0000:02:00.0: Host supports USB 3.0 SuperSpeed
[    0.533937] usb usb1: Product: xHCI Host Controller
[    0.534431] usb usb1: Manufacturer: Linux 5.15.80 xhci-hcd
[    0.539204] usb usb2: Product: xHCI Host Controller
[    0.539668] usb usb2: Manufacturer: Linux 5.15.80 xhci-hcd
[    0.778350] usb 1-1: new high-speed USB device number 2 using xhci_hcd
[    1.352598] usb 1-4: new full-speed USB device number 3 using xhci_hcd
[    1.860430] usb 1-5: new full-speed USB device number 4 using xhci_hcd
[    2.752402] usbcore: registered new interface driver btusb
[    4.122762] Bluetooth: BNEP (Ethernet Emulation) ver 1.3
[    4.122766] Bluetooth: BNEP filters: protocol multicast
[    4.122769] Bluetooth: BNEP socket layer initialized
[   11.437837] Bluetooth: RFCOMM TTY layer initialized
[   11.437844] Bluetooth: RFCOMM socket layer initialized
[   11.437847] Bluetooth: RFCOMM ver 1.11
[428617.555121] usb 1-4: new full-speed USB device number 5 using xhci_hcd
[428715.352721] usb 1-5: new full-speed USB device number 6 using xhci_hcd
[433125.800654] Bluetooth: hci0: urb 000000006ce3b3cd failed to resubmit (2)
[433126.360123] usb 1-5: reset full-speed USB device number 6 using xhci_hcd
➜  ~

I can’t see any evidence the bluetooth adapter has been detected.

Thank you that’s what i thought it was. I’m just going to buy a new Bluetooth device from the approved list and try your instructions out again.

Thank you again

I wonder if it’s just not being detected as it’s inside a virtual machine. I’ve never tried to access physical resources like a Bluetooth adapter from a virtual machine so I don’t know how.

I just thought I post here because this is where google sent me when asking if my adapter works with HA.

I purchased the:
ZEXMTE LR BT5.1 adapter
Model: BT-506 (a model highier than the BT-505 on the recommended list)
Chipset: RTL8761B

And everything was plug and play on the HA Yellow running on the latest 2023.2.4 version. After plugging it in, it shows the device and clicking setup everything is done automatically. It then displayed all the BT devices around. I haven’t used it extensively, but no errors or anything have popped up yet. Just thought I’d let people know.

Nice, good to know it’s plug and play with the HA Yellow, thanks @NvrBst . HA Core on R.Pi4 takes a little more work - not much more once I figured out all the steps.