Thank you all for your feedback. After hours of trying I was able to redeploy to all my devices.
Even after everything grinded to a halt, the esphome seemed to continue compiling and uploading the firmware, because after the power cycle the devices mysteriously were on the new firmware.
This happened at least 10 times yesterday. I waited a realy long time (more then 30 min) but the system (raspy 3b+) did not recover without a powercycle.
Without changing the configuration it successfully deployed the second time. So this seems to only happen on the first compile.
It’s unsatisfying not to know the cause but everything seems to be fine now.