Lovelace: Cards missing certain elements

On certain devices (Fire Tablet, Ubuntu in VirtualBox) certain elements of a card are missing:

Interestingly, I do not have any issues on iOS, iPadOS or Windows.
The problem exists in the home assistant app and in any browser I tried on those devices (Silk, Firefox).

I run 116.4.

Any idea where to look?

Problem persists in 116.5

Interestingly it seems to be limited to custom cards. Standard cards appear to be displayed properly.